Christopher B. Germann
(Marie Curie Fellow / Doctoral Candidate)

Marie Curie Actions

Associated website of the European Commission:

Research project #14: Irrationality and decision-making

Primary supervisor:

Prof. Chris Harris

Project homepage:

Quantum cognition: An epistemological challenge for naïve and local realism

Oral presentation - School of Psychology conference – University of Plymouth – June 2018

Quantum cognition is an innovative and interdisciplinary emerging field within the cognitive sciences as, inter alia, evidenced by a recent theme issue published by the Royal Society. It is independent from the widely debated Orch-OR (Orchestrated Objective Reduction) theory formulated by Sir Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff which postulates that quantum processes at the microtubular neuronal level are causative for the emergence of consciousness (cf. Hameroff & Penrose, 2014). Quantum cognition, on the other hand, applies the abstract formalism of quantum mechanics to cognitive processes, e.g., decision-making, perception, memory, conceptual reasoning, language, etc. (e.g., Aerts, Broekaert, & Gabora, 2011; Atmanspacher, 2016; Atmanspacher & Filk, 2013; Pothos & Busemeyer, 2013; Wang, Busemeyer, Atmanspacher, & Pothos, 2013; Yearsley & Pothos, 2014). The vast majority of contemporary models (e.g., those utilising Boolean logic or Bayes' theorem) are grounded on Kolmogorovian probability axioms which stipulate that operators obey commutativity, i.e., P(A∩B)=P(B∩A). By contrast, quantum probability theory is not limited by these aprioristic structural constraints and is able to parsimoniously account for numerous empirical results which appear, prima facie, irrational and paradoxical in the orthodox framework. Recent empirical evidence from experimental quantum physics (e.g., Giustina et al., 2015; Handsteiner et al., 2017; Hensen et al., 2015) is highly pertinent for psychology, neuroscience, and computer science, because it challenges some of the unquestioned assumptions which underlie most of current theorising, viz., naïve and local realism (see Wiseman, 2015). This presentation will briefly review these paradigm-shifting findings and their epistemological and ontological implications. Moreover, I will discuss conceptually related psychophysics experiments conducted in India and the UK during my PhD. Finally, neurochemical processes (specifically 5-HT2A receptor agonism) which underpin open-mindedness and intellectual curiosity will be addressed, as these personality traits are indispensable to appreciate the extensive ramifications of the novel and epistemically challenging results.

  • Aerts, D., Broekaert, J., & Gabora, L. (2011). A case for applying an abstracted quantum formalism to cognition. New Ideas in Psychology, 29(2), 136–146.
  • Atmanspacher, H. (2016). Non-commutative structures from quantum physics to consciousness studies. In From Chemistry to Consciousness: The Legacy of Hans Primas (pp. 127–146).
  • Atmanspacher, H., & Filk, T. (2013). The necker-zeno model for bistable perception. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5(4), 800–817.
  • Giustina, M., Versteegh, M. A. M., Wengerowsky, S., Handsteiner, J., Hochrainer, A., Phelan, K., … Zeilinger, A. (2015). Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell’s Theorem with Entangled Photons. Physical Review Letters, 115(25).
  • Hameroff, S., & Penrose, R. (2014). Consciousness in the universe: a review of the “Orch OR” theory. Physics of Life Reviews, 11(1), 39–78.
  • Handsteiner, J., Friedman, A. S., Rauch, D., Gallicchio, J., Liu, B., Hosp, H., … Zeilinger, A. (2017). Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars. Physical Review Letters, 118(6).
  • Hensen, B., Bernien, H., Dreaú, A. E., Reiserer, A., Kalb, N., Blok, M. S., … Hanson, R. (2015). Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres. Nature, 526(7575), 682–686.
  • Pothos, E. M., & Busemeyer, J. R. (2013). Can quantum probability provide a new direction for cognitive modeling? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(3), 255–274.
  • Wang, Z., Busemeyer, J. R., Atmanspacher, H., & Pothos, E. M. (2013). The potential of using quantum theory to build models of cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5(4), 672–688.
  • Wiseman, H. (2015). Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism. Nature, 526, 649–650.
  • Yearsley, J. M., & Pothos, E. M. (2014). Challenging the classical notion of time in cognition: a quantum perspective. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1781), 20133056–20133056.

5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: A novel treatment for addiction

Poster presentation: Cognition Institute conference – University of Plymouth – June 2018

5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (acronymized as 5-MeO-DMT) is sui generis among the numerous naturally-occurring psychoactive indolealkylamine substances. Research indicates that 5-MeO-DMT may be endogenously synthesized in human pineal and retina. Moreover, it has been detected in blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (Shen, Jiang, Winter, & Yu, 2010). Anthropological evidence suggests that various cultures utilised it for medicinal, psychological, and spiritual purposes for millennia (Furst, 1972). The molecule acts as a nonselective partial agonist at the 5-HT1A/2A receptor subtypes (associated with emotions, cognition, and memory, inter alia). Phenomenologically, 5-MeO-DMT can occasion “nondual experiences” (cf. Josipovic, 2014) analogous to those described in several ancient Asian knowledge traditions (e.g., Advaita Vedānta (Silberstein, 2017)) and it has been characterised as a prototypical entheogen (Metzner, 2015; Ruck, Bigwood, Staples, Ott, & Wasson, 1979). Accumulating evidence indicates that it is a ligand of the “Trace amine-associated receptors” (TAARs), a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001. TAARs have been associated with pathological neuroadaptations caused by prolonged exposure to addictive drugs (e.g., alcohol, heroin, cocaine, etc.). Ergo, this molecular target might partially explain 5-MeO-DMTs promising neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in addiction treatment. Furthermore, a recent cutting-edge neuroscientific in vivo and in silico study using human cerebral organoids found that 5-MeO-DMT matches the σ1 receptor which regulates cytoskeletal dendritic spine morphology and neurite outgrowth (Dakic et al., 2017). Therefore, σ1R agonism may mediate neuroplastic processes which accompany positive cognitive/behavioural changes. In addition, 5-MeO-DMT has been shown to downregulate the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) which is involved in the hedonic rewarding effects of addictive drugs (Knapp & Kornetsky, 2009). The effects of the extraordinary tryptamine on the dopaminergic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) are currently not well defined and more research is evidently needed to elucidate its exact neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of action and potential associated epigenetic effects.

  • Dakic, V., Minardi Nascimento, J., Costa Sartore, R., Maciel, R. de M., de Araujo, D. B., Ribeiro, S., … Rehen, S. K. (2017). Short term changes in the proteome of human cerebral organoids induced by 5-MeO-DMT. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 12863.
  • Furst, P. T. (1972). Symbolism and Psychopharmacology: the Toad as Earth Mother in Indian America. In K.J. Litrak & T.N. Castillo (Eds.), 1972, Religión en Mesoamerica, XII Mesa Redonda, Sociedad Méxicana de Antropología, México (pp. 37–46). Retrieved from
  • Josipovic, Z. (2014). Neural correlates of nondual awareness in meditation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1307(1), 9–18.
  • Knapp, C. M., & Kornetsky, C. (2009). Neural Basis of Pleasure and Reward. Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences, 781–806.
  • Metzner, R. (2015). Allies for awakening : guidelines for productive and safe experiences with entheogens. Berkeley, CA: Green Earth Foundation & Regent Press.
  • Ruck, C. A. P., Bigwood, J., Staples, D., Ott, J., & Wasson, G. (1979). Entheogens. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 11(1–2), 145–146.
  • Shen, H.-W., Jiang, X.-L., Winter, J. C., & Yu, A.-M. (2010). Psychedelic 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: metabolism, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and pharmacological actions. Current Drug Metabolism, 11(8), 659–666.
  • Silberstein, M. (2017). Panentheism, neutral monism, and Advaita Vedanta. Zygon, 52(4), 1123–1145.

Academic Background

Previous research experience

I started studying psychology at the Free University of Amsterdam. My bachelor studies (supervised by Dr. Karen Mortier) were conducted within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition. In our experiments, we utilized different mood induction techniques in order to empirically investigate their influence on selective attention in a series of computerized visual search tasks. Our theorizing was significantly influenced by considerations regarding conceptual metaphor theory and the neuropsychological valence model of hemispheric processing of emotion perception.
Subsequent to my bachelor studies, I successfully completed a M.Sc. in Psychological Research Methods (with distinction) at the University of Plymouth. During my master's project, I collaborated with Prof. Simon Handley and the resulting dissertation focused primarily on the role executive functions play in syllogistic vs. belief-based reasoning (i.e., syntax vs. semantics in belief bias). Much of the motivation for our experimentation was derived from prior work on ego depletion and contemporary dual process theories of cognition. Based on this background, I acquired substantial knowledge in cognitive psychology, particularly in the domain of reasoning and decision making (e.g., behavioural economics in the Kahneman and Tversky research tradition).

Technical skills

I am a web-designer and a user-interface developer and proficient with various modern information technologies and scripting languages (e.g., HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, PHP, etc.). Shortly after finishing my masters in psychological research methods, I started a web design company in Germany.

Interdisciplinary interests

I am intrinsically very interested in the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) system and its role in perception and cognition (for instance, creativity, open-mindedness, cognitive flexibility, neuroplasticity and neurogenesis). Furthermore, philosophy of science and mind capture my deepest curiosity.
Personally, I love to exchange ideas with scholars who adhere to different scientific and cultural paradigms (i.e., Weltanschauungen) because interdisciplinary and cross-cultural discourse offers great intellectual stimulation and provides impetus for the development of novel unconventional ideas, hypotheses, and theories.

"Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas". ~Marie Curie

Presentation on "Quantum cognition and non-classical probability in visual perception"

Workshop on experimental research methods
(together with Prof. Chris Harris)

Off the Lip conference

Off the Lip 2015

TRANSCENDING ACADEMIC AND EPISTEMIC BOUNDARIES: Psychoactive tryptamines and the frontiers of human exploration

presented on 9th of September 2015 @ Off the Lip conference (Transdisciplinary Approaches to Cognitive Innovation)


Contemporary materialistic reductionist neuroscience emanates from the working hypothesis that the underpinnings of human perception and cognition are based on electrochemical signal transduction. That is, electrical action potentials and chemical neurotransmission are postulated to undergird all mental processes. Interestingly, especially from a neurochemistry/biology point of view, several secondary (possibly semiotic) plant compounds have close structural relationships with various human neurotransmitters and consequently can reliably change a variety of cognitive processes (both quantitatively and qualitatively). N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (often acronymised as DMT) is a paradigmatic exemplar. Its molecular structural geometry (see Appendix) is very closely related to 5-hydroxytryptamin (Serotonin). DMT is a phylogenetically ancient molecule which is ubiquitous in the plant and animal kingdom (Smith, 1977). In its pure synthesized form, it is a white, pungent-smelling, crystalline solid. Accumulating converging evidence suggests that DMT is an endogenous neurotransmitter in the human brain (e.g., Cozzi, et al., 2009; Fontanilla, et al., 2009).

A defining criterion of DMTs psychological activity is that it affects visual perception in the most spectacular ways possibly imaginable. Its profound experiential/phenomenological effects are described as consciousness expanding, transformative, and essentially ineffable. DMT has been used in shamanistic rituals for millennia by several cultural traditions. For example, it constitutes the active chemical principle in Ayahuasca, a plant based, drinkable concoction, which is utilized by indigenous tribes in the Amazonian rainforest for divinatory and healing purposes (Metzner, 2014). Typically, the main ingredients of the Ayahuasca brew are two plants, Psychotria Viridis (which contains the DMT) and Banisteriopsis Caapi (which contains the harmala alkaloid harmine, a slective and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor that prevents the breakdown of DMT in the gastro-intestinal tract). Western science has just recently learned about DMT and its psychoactive effects from ethnobotanists who were able to conserve this ancient knowledge literally in the last minute because old shamanic traditions are being extinguished at a fast pace by the modern industrial world.

“Templo Sacrosanto” by Pablo Amaringo“Templo Sacrosanto” by Pablo Amaringo (see also Luna & Amaringo, 1999).


  • Cozzi, N.V., Gopalakrishnan, A., Anderson, L.L., Feih, J.T., Shulgin, A.T., Daley, P.F., Ruoho A.E. (2009). Dimethyltryptamine and other hallucinogenic tryptamines exhibit substrate behavior at the serotonin uptake transporter and the vesicle monoamine transporter. Journal of Neural Transmission, 116(12), 1591-1599.
  • Fontanilla, D., Johannessen, M., Hajipour, A.R., Cozzi, N.V., Jackson, M.B., Ruoho, A.E. (2009). The Hallucinogen N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Is an Endogenous Sigma-1 Receptor Regulator. Science, 323(5916), 934-937.
  • Luna, L. & Amaringo, P. (1999). Ayahuasca visions: The religious iconography of a Peruvian shaman. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books.
  • Metzner, R. (2014). The Ayahuasca experience: A sourcebook on the sacred vine of spirits. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.
  • Smith, T. (1977). Tryptamine and Related Compounds in Plants, Phytochemistry, 16, 171-175.


Chemical relations between Serotonin, Psilocin, and DMT

Compounds such as psilocin (which is a precursor of psilocybin) and DMT have chemical structures that resemble the neurotransmitter serotonin. This structural similarity allows them to stimulate serotonin-sensitive neurons. Note that the intermolecular serotonin motif is embedded in both analogous structures.

Podcast with Prof. Roger Malina



Christopher Germann and Prof. Roger Malina discuss Chris’ current work in the Cognovo PhD program, on quantum cognition which applies the mathematical formalisms of quantum theory to understanding cognitive processes. Chris is currently working on non-commutativity in decision theory, with laboratory experiments in visual decision making. He is also studying the role of the endogenous neurotransmitter DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) in perception and cognition.

Interview at RadioCognovia

URL: Radio Cognovia interview with Christopher B. Germann

Presentation at the “Science and Nonduality” conference in California


Science and Nonduality CogNovo@SAND
Chris presented the empirical results of his psychophysics experiments at the ”Science and Nonduality“ conference which took place in California's Silicon Valley.
Science and Nonduality (acronymised as SAND) provides a forum where preeminent physicist, neuroscientists, psychologists, philosophers, artists and a large, international community gather to explore and advance the new emerging paradigm that is both grounded in cutting-edge science and consistent with the ancient philosophical wisdom of nondual schools of thought (e.g., Advaita Vedānta, Mahāyāna Buddhism) — the deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all life.

"Imagine a multidimensional spider's web in the early morning covered with dew drops. And every dew drop contains the reflection of all the other dew drops. And, in each reflected dew drop, the reflections of all the other dew drops in that reflection. And so ad infinitum. That is the Buddhist conception of the universe in an image."

~ Alan Watts

"It really boils down to this: that all life is interrelated. We are all caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied into a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one destiny, affects all indirectly."

~ Martin Luther King Jr.

Indras net
Indra's net is a visual metaphor that illustrates the ontological concepts of dependent origination and interpenetration (see Cook, 1977).

SAND explores the edge where knowledge meets the unknown. SAND is inspired to develop a vibrant community of individuals who share this vision, believing the time is right for the fragmentation of knowledge that has occurred over the last centuries to give way to a new integrative paradigm in which science and spirituality reenter into meaningful dialogue – bridging an empirically responsible and non-dogmatic spirituality with a humanistic science willing to consider questions of context, perception, meaning and purpose.

„Was ich in der Natur sehe, ist eine großartige Struktur, die wir nur sehr unvollkommen zu erfassen vermögen und die einen denkenden Menschen mit einem Gefühl der Demut erfüllen muss. Dies ist ein echt religiöses Gefühl das mit Mystizismus nichts zu schaffen hat.“

Translation: “What I see in Nature is a magnificent structure that we can comprehend only very imperfectly, and that must fill a thinking person with a feeling of humility. This is a genuinely religious feeling that has nothing to do with mysticism”.

~ Albert Einstein (1979, p.132)


  • Cook, F.H., 1977, Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra, University Park: Pennsylvania State University.
  • Einstein, A., Dukas, H. & Hoffmann, B. (1979). Albert Einstein, the Human Side: Glimpses from His Archives. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • King, M.L., Jr. (1967). A Christmas Sermon for Peace, Ebenezer Baptist Church.
  • Watts, A. (1969). Following the Middle Way. [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from on 2008-08-31

Secondment @ Manipal University Jaipur in India

Manipal University Jaipur
Chris finished his secondment at Manipal University Jaipur where he conducted emprical research under the supervision of Professor Geetika Tankha on psychophysical noncommutativity effects in cross-modal perceptual processes. In addition, the investigation focused on the concept of ego-extension from a cross-culural perspective.

Professor Geetika Tankha

Professor Geetika Tankha is Head of the Psychology department at Manipal University Jaipur, India. She holds a doctorate in psychology from the University of Rajasthan. Her major areas of research interest are individual differences, human cognition, environmental and cross-cultural psychology.

More infos:

Leonardo Book Reviews


  • Stone, A. D. (2016). Einstein and the Quantum. The Quest of the Valiant Swabian Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. doi:10.1515/9781400874040
  • Freese, K. (2014). The Cosmic Cocktail: Three Parts Dark Matter Three Parts Dark Matter. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. WEB
  • Gazzaniga, M. S., & Mangun, G. R. (2014). The Cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge: The MIT Press. ISBN:9780262027779, WEB

Cognition Institute with Plymouth University


Christopher B. Germann
Marie Curie Fellow
Cognition Institute
Plymouth University
Address: CogNovo → Link Building (3rd Floor) | Plymouth University | Drake Circus | Plymouth | PL4 8AA | United Kingdom